Chapter 6: Economic Structure and Business Organization in the Central Region of Mexico
Jaime Sobrino INTRODUCTION: DIFFERENTIAL URBANIZATION AND METROPOLITAN REGIONS In 1993, a paper by Hermanaus Geyer and Thomas Kontuly appeared in the International Regional Science Review, the purpose of which was to propose a graphic and territorial model on the demographic performance of cities based on population size (Geyer and Kontuly, 1993). Based on the available literature until that date, and with some empirical exercises undertaken by themselves, they concluded that the model could be applied both to developed and developing countries. That model was called differential urbanization and assumed that the cities of a national urban system, divided according to population size, experience successive periods of high and low demographic growth. These differences in demographic growth are attributed to the pattern of migration flows that occur inside the nation. From a graphic perspective, the model of differential urbanization presents three phases: (i) primary city; (ii) polarization reversal, and (iii) counterurbanization (Figure 6.1). During the first phase, most of the population growth inside the urban system occurs in the main city, generally the capital of the country, where most of the population and of the national economic activity are concentrated. The second phase is when intermediate cities have a major rate of population growth, in relation to the primary city, and at the same time they work as alternative nodes for economic activity location; internal migration is not for the primary city but for intermediate urban areas. Finally, the third phase, counterurbanization, occurs when the smaller urban areas are the major...
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