Energy for the 21st Century

Energy for the 21st Century

Opportunities and Challenges for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

New Horizons in Environmental and Energy Law series

Susan L. Sakmar

Countries around the world are increasingly looking to liquefied natural gas (LNG) – natural gas that has been cooled until it forms a transportable liquid – to meet growing energy demand. Energy for the 21st Century provides critical insights into the opportunities and challenges LNG faces, including its potential role in a carbon-constrained world.

Chapter 6: The globalization of LNG: the evolution of LNG trade, pricing and contracts

Susan L. Sakmar

Subjects: environment, energy policy and regulation, environmental law, law - academic, energy law, environmental law


The LNG markets originally developed as a niche business under which a relatively small number of sellers supplied specific regional markets with LNG under long-term contracts. Historically, there was very little trade in terms of a spot or short-term market and likewise, there were very few cargo diversions from the originally intended destination. As discussed in detail in Chapter 3, LNG trade has historically been divided into the Asia-Pacific and Atlantic Basin/North American regions with very little trade occurring between the two. For example, LNG trade data for the period 1995–2005 indicate that suppliers in both the Asia-Pacific and the Atlantic Basin regions dedicated over 99 percent of their supply to markets in the same region. In addition to trade being mostly regional, the vast majority of the cargoes to those regions were committed under long-term contracts that were generally required to underpin the financing and capital investment required for the capital-intensive LNG projects. Typical contracts normally specify delivery of gas to a particular location for a duration of 20–25 years.

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information