Gender Inequalities in Production and Reproduction
Edited by Jacqueline Scott, Shirley Dex and Anke C. Plagnol
Chapter 1: The Childhood Origins of Adult Socio-economic Disadvantage: Do Cohort and Gender Matter?
John Hobcraft and Wendy Sigle-Rushton INTRODUCTION 1. In this chapter we use data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to explore inter-cohort comparisons on childhood markers of adult socio-economic disadvantage. Exploiting the similar design and content of these two studies, we investigate, for individuals born in 1958 and in 1970 in Great Britain, whether the family and childhood antecedents of adult socio-economic disadvantage have changed over time and whether they differ for men and women. We are particularly interested in assessing how far there are common predictors across birth cohorts, and for both men and women, of adult socio-economic disadvantage. To explore this we use a regression model to test explicitly for evidence of common (or ‘main’) effects that apply to both men and women and to both cohorts, of cohort-specific differences in response to disadvantaged origins (‘cohort’ interactions), of gendered differences in response to disadvantaged origins (‘gender’ interactions) and of differential gender responses to childhood disadvantage across cohorts (‘cohort-gender’ interactions). To provide greater insight into the underlying processes involved in the pathways of experiencing disadvantage in the family of origin or during childhood, and the resulting legacies during early adulthood, we estimate models that allow us to identify the important factors that influence adult disadvantage for both men and women across time and to document which relationships have changed over time or that differ by gender. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Research on the life course and human development emphasises that events...
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