Chapter 5: Scientists’ Valuation of Open Science and Commercialization: The Influence of Peers and Organizational Context
Stefan Krabel INTRODUCTION 1 Over the past decades, universities and other public research organizations have faced the challenge of transforming themselves into ‘entrepreneurial enterprises’. Observing the importance of academic research for sciencebased industries such as biotechnology or nanotechnology, policy makers called upon public research to make scientific achievements more relevant to industry (Slaughter and Leslie, 1997; Cohen et al., 1998). Facing these changed policy expectations for economic development and seeking new sources of income, universities and public research organizations escalated their involvement in technology transfer (see, for example, Powers and McDougall, 2005). With the demand for commercialization efforts of scientists increasing, a scholarly debate has arisen whether and to what extent scientific norms are changing as a result. Existing studies highlight that in research a dual system of reward allocation has evolved (Dasgupta and David, 1994; Hong and Walsh, 2009). On the one hand, scientists still need to disseminate their results openly, for example, by publication, in order to prove their academic advances. Thus, in the spirit of the Mertonian norm of communism, many scientists freely share their research outcome and receive the recognition of peers when distinguished advances are achieved – adhering to the concept of open science (Merton, 1957; Hong and Walsh, 2009). On the other hand, a large percentage of scientists regard successful commercialization as a tool for gaining academic repute (Owen-Smith and Powell, 2004; Colyvas and Powell, 2007). The latter view is based on the rationale that scientists become increasingly visible and also attract external funding when...
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