Chapter 8: Creativity, Human Resources and Organizational Learning
Thierry Burger-Helmchen and Patrick Llerena INTRODUCTION 1 Resource-based theories of the firm draw attention to a firm’s ability to explore and exploit new knowledge as the source of value creation and sustainable development (Conner and Prahalad, 1996). How to achieve a good balance between exploration and exploitation activities in a firm is a puzzling question for the manager. For the applied economist, it is difficult to develop effective criteria of decision in a dynamic context for dispatching the resources between the two activities (O’Reilly and Tushman, 2004). The problem becomes even more cumbersome in creative industries where production and creation are intimately related. In those industries, creation often occurs during the production phase. Therefore the notion of value creation and the sources of value creation become an even more important topic. Our contribution will be to add a new perspective to the debate: the distinction between division of knowledge and division of labor. Knowledge is the essence of the resource-based perspective and it is also the source of innovation. In a strategic perspective, knowledge can be viewed on the one hand as a stock (Dierickx and Cool, 1989) or base (Asheim, 2007) when we refer to accumulated routines, skills and expertise in relation to a specific domain. On the other hand, knowledge is transformed into a flow when we refer to transfer, integration and development of new knowledge. Knowledge bases are essential for the exploitation activities of the firm and knowledge flows are indispensable in exploratory activities, creativity is then...
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