Intellectual Property, Agriculture and Global Food Security

Intellectual Property, Agriculture and Global Food Security

The Privatization of Crop Diversity

Claudio Chiarolla

This well-researched book focuses on international governance of crop diversity and agricultural innovation. It highlights the implications that the future control of food, including access to agricultural resources and technologies, might have for global food security.

Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview

Claudio Chiarolla

Subjects: environment, environmental law, law - academic, environmental law, intellectual property law, international economic law, trade law

Extract

1.1 GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES This book considers the proposition that global institutional reforms that govern the present and future allocation of rights on, and wealth from, crop diversity are insufficient—and in some respects inappropriate—to achieve international equity in terms of the way plant genetic resources are transferred, how agricultural research is conducted, and its benefits are shared. Its focus on ownership regulation derives from the paramount importance that both the design and allocation of rights in plant genetic resources might have for global food security due to their implications in terms of wealth and resource allocation within the agriculture sector. Thus, the subject matter under consideration is the study of normative aspects of global institutional reforms that concern agricultural innovation systems and the commodification of crop diversity. The commodification of crop diversity can be defined as the adoption, harmonization and implementation of laws and international law instruments, which determine the allocation of legal entitlements to manage and control plant genetic resources, their derivatives and the benefits thereof. On the other hand, ‘the concept of ‘innovation’ refers to the search for, development, adaptation, imitation and adoption of technologies that are new to a specific context’.1 Within the above subject matter, this book has three specific objectives: 1) to analyse the limitations and systemic weaknesses of global institutional reforms that concern agricultural innovation systems and the commodification of crop diversity; to assess the developmental implications of changes in the legal...