The Privatization of Crop Diversity
Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview
1.1 GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES This book considers the proposition that global institutional reforms that govern the present and future allocation of rights on, and wealth from, crop diversity are insufﬁcient—and in some respects inappropriate—to achieve international equity in terms of the way plant genetic resources are transferred, how agricultural research is conducted, and its beneﬁts are shared. Its focus on ownership regulation derives from the paramount importance that both the design and allocation of rights in plant genetic resources might have for global food security due to their implications in terms of wealth and resource allocation within the agriculture sector. Thus, the subject matter under consideration is the study of normative aspects of global institutional reforms that concern agricultural innovation systems and the commodiﬁcation of crop diversity. The commodiﬁcation of crop diversity can be deﬁned as the adoption, harmonization and implementation of laws and international law instruments, which determine the allocation of legal entitlements to manage and control plant genetic resources, their derivatives and the beneﬁts thereof. On the other hand, ‘the concept of ‘innovation’ refers to the search for, development, adaptation, imitation and adoption of technologies that are new to a speciﬁc context’.1 Within the above subject matter, this book has three speciﬁc objectives: 1) to analyse the limitations and systemic weaknesses of global institutional reforms that concern agricultural innovation systems and the commodiﬁcation of crop diversity; to assess the developmental implications of changes in the legal...