Improving the Environment for a Greener Future
New Horizons in Environmental Economics series
Chapter 16: The Next Emerging Giants: India and Africa
INTRODUCTION Economic growth in India and Africa might reshape the world. Many of the reforms have led to a substantial liberalization of the corporate sector directly or indirectly by easing restrictions on firms’ activities and enhancing overall competition. Recently, GDP has increased significantly in India and in some of the African countries. During the pre-development periods, agriculture and resource-based activities, low levels of income, and little industrialization with low-tech operation and low labor costs have been the main characteristics of these countries (Kumar and Managi, 2009, 2010). This chapter analyzes the cases of India and Sub-Saharan African countries. In the case of India, responses to climate change are discussed with regard to the future importance to the economy and also to the world (Section 2). The chapter also examines how investments from foreign countries affect the economy in Sub-Saharan African countries (Section 3). This is because foreign investments are expected to help African economies at the same time as solving environmental problems. However, data on African firms are limited so in this chapter we focus on the economy and discuss the implications for the environment. 2 CLIMATE-RESILIENT ECONOMY IN INDIA Introduction GDP in India has increased by an average of nearly 9 percent per annum in the past five years. Previous studies have indicated the future potential importance of economic growth with regard to the byproduct of environmental emissions (Kumar and Managi, 2009). India’s contribution to the climate problem has been small. The country is responsible for only about 2...
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