The Shifting Roles of the EU, the US and California
Edited by David Vogel and Johan Swinnen
Chapter 13: Lessons Learned and Suggestions for Improving Regulatory Cooperation between California and the EU
Ian Clark INTRODUCTION Both the EU at the global level and California at the national level have emerged as regulatory policy leaders, in particular in the field of environmental policy. Firms and policy-makers in each jurisdiction are increasingly aware of developments in the other jurisdiction, and are affecting and being influenced by them. Historically, California has been a regulatory first-mover at both the national and international levels. More recently, the EU has become a global regulatory leader in environmental policy while California has become a vehicle for the dissemination of European regulatory policies within the US – now at the state level and possibly in the future at the federal level as well. The central objective of a 2008–09 project on California–EU regulatory cooperation managed by the University of California, Berkeley, and the Catholic University of Leuven – and a key issue in this book – has been to promote opportunities to expand regulatory cooperation, learning and emulation between California and the EU. The project has also sought to foster mechanisms by which their approaches to regulatory policy innovation can be more broadly disseminated. This chapter contains personal reflections on these issues, based on this author’s experience of working for the EU, reading the chapters in this volume, following discussions at the project workshops and discussions with Berkeley academics as well as representatives of business and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in California. The chapter looks at where cooperation can be enhanced, both generally in relation to environmental policy and specifically in the...
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