Democracy and Dissent

Democracy and Dissent

The Challenge of International Rule Making

Frank Vibert

Frank Vibert expertly examines the fundamental issues involved in attempts to rethink international institutions and their rule making procedures. He analyses the basic problems with the existing system and the main approaches to its reform. The book rejects the idea that there are any simple institutional ‘fixes’ for current problems – such as relying on the G20 to coordinate global rule making and also rejects more ambitious attempts to prescribe new general organizing principles for world governance. It calls instead for specific remedies for specific problems. The author recommends new procedures for all international rule making so that both expert groups and governments are subject to much stronger external checks on what they do.

Appendix B: Definitions of Selected Cognitive Terms

Frank Vibert

Subjects: politics and public policy, international politics, international relations


Action-induced belief. Being persuaded of the validity of a choice as a result of the adoption of that choice or belief. Affect heuristics. When a ‘feeling state’ about the goodness or badness of likely outcomes provides a stimulus to prefer an intuitive approach to judgements rather than a rule-governed approach. Anchoring. When beliefs are attached to an initial value. Bias occurs when anchoring leads to inattentiveness to new evidence or susceptibility to suggestion (see also Reference points). Attribution. The attempt of people to infer causes for the effects observed and preference for causal data over diagnostic data of equal information. Attribution bias leads to over-prediction from uncertain data. Availability. People evaluate probability by the ease with which instances or occurrences can be brought to mind. Bias occurs when the memorable example is unrepresentative. Categorisation. The use of sets of instances for processing or screening information. Bias can arise through failure to make cross-comparisons with other categories or to check whether the information belongs within the set. Confirmatory bias. When evidence is filtered though a pre-existing hypothesis, leading to selective scrutiny of the evidence, the misreading of evidence, the treatment of ambiguous evidence as confirmatory of the preexisting hypothesis and to the polarisation of views. Credulity risk. The failure to take account of the incentives of another to manipulate information. Discounting bias. When short-term preferences are not consistent with long-term preferences. 219 M2466 - VIBERT PRINT.indd 219 15/12/2010 08:09 220 Democracy and dissent Framing. Refers in general to the extreme...

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