Chapter 12: The Vital Role of Electrical Energy for Arizona Water Services
Joseph H. Hoover 12.1. INTRODUCTION The southwest United States is a water-scarce, arid region that is especially challenged by increases in coupled water–energy demand. The population of Arizona, which is expected to increase by more than 4 million people between 2009 and 2030, compounds the challenges associated with the water–energy nexus. This compels water providers to address increasing energy usage related to water services (Scott et al., 2007). Research on the water–energy nexus includes determining water needs for energy production and energy usage for water services. The water demand for energy generation is well documented (Solley et al., 1998; Electric Power Research Institute [EPRI], 2002b; Hutson et al., 2004; Pasqualetti and Kelley, 2008; King and Webber, 2008) and is detailed in other chapters of this book; however, few studies report quantified energy demands for water services in the Southwest, particularly for rapid-growth areas that experience water scarcity such as the state of Arizona. Basic conceptual and empirical questions remain unanswered regarding the energy implications of increasing water demand and wastewater services in Arizona. For example, rapid expansion of reclaimed water is driven by the need to augment existing water supplies. Additionally, climate-change uncertainty complicates long-term water resources planning throughout the state. Quantified electricity demands by water-service type allows for the consideration of scenarios leading to improved understanding of the water–energy nexus, at both the local and state level, in light of anticipated changes to water resources. This chapter provides an overview of energy-for-water issues that exist...
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