Chapter 2: A Global Perspective on Education and Training
Alicia Coduras Martinez, Jonathan Levie, Donna Kelley, Rognvaldur J. Sæmundsson and Thomas Schøtt* 2.1 INTRODUCTION In the closing decades of the 20th century, entrepreneurship gained increased recognition among economists as a significant driver of improvements in societal welfare. Across the globe, governments have acknowledged the importance of their role in motivating individuals, businesses and related stakeholders to perceive and develop new opportunities that can enact positive change and create economic growth in their societies.1 This entrepreneurial spirit is now seen as the main source of innovations in nearly all industries, leading to the birth of new enterprises and the growth and renewal of established organizations. The impact of entrepreneurship education and training on individual attitudes, actions, and ambitions is of particular interest to policymakers, educators, and practitioners. It is generally believed that individuals who perceive they have the skills and knowledge to start a business are more likely to do so. However, as the next section demonstrates, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) expert surveys in most countries suggest that entrepreneurship education and training, both in school and outside of school, is inadequate. Recognizing this concern among hundreds of experts across the globe, the GEM consortium chose education and training as its special topic for 2008. Of the 43 countries participating in the 2008 survey, 38 added questions about entrepreneurship education and training to their adult population surveys and 30 countries added questions to their expert surveys. This report expands on initial findings from these surveys reported in the GEM...
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