Ethics and the Evaluation of Transport Policies and Projects
Transport Economics, Management and Policy series
Chapter 8: The Use of Models
8.1 INTRODUCTION Questions related to modelling include: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● How reliable are models in the case of large changes in independent variables? Is their use in the case of large changes OK? To what extent do models make policy makers aware of problems? To what extent do current transport models reproduce current thinking? Do current transport models present the indicators that are needed for ex ante evaluations of ethically relevant issues? Who should be allowed to use transport models? What to do if multiple models for the same problem exist, that result in different outcomes? Should the researcher (only) present model outcomes, or correct these outcomes based on expert judgement? In addition to the previous chapter, this chapter aims to further elaborate on the ethical dimensions of research by discussing the ethical dimensions of the use of models. The aim is to increase awareness of the ethical dimensions of model use in the clients asking for a study in which models are used, modellers themselves, those researchers that apply models, and those that use model results (formal clients and other actors such as interest groups). In this chapter, I only discuss models used for the ex ante evaluation of policy options.1 As a result, other model types such as decision models are excluded. In fact, only transport and impact models are discussed. Within those categories, this chapter does not discuss all transport and impact models, but concentrates on those models generally used for ex ante evaluation of transport policies and plans. The...