Chapter 9: State- owned enterprises
An estimated 192 SOE and 43 mixed ownership firms continue to dominate the economy of Iraq despite the fact that they tend to be high-cost, low-quality producers. Not only are they are the leading providers of essential services such as electricity and water but also SOE account for a large proportion of all consumer goods and industrial inputs. Further reflecting their major impact on the country, SOE are, collectively, the largest employers after the national government. An estimated 580 000 persons work for SOE accounting for almost all of Iraq industrial employment. The products and services produced by Iraqi SOE include almost all of those consumed by a modern economy. In addition to producing construction materials, petroleum production, weapons, and electricity generation; state-run entities also rent limousines, operate dairies, manufacture household furniture and cigarettes, weave carpets, and operate automobile dealerships and gas stations.
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