What Implications for the ‘European Social Model’?
Edited by Marie-Ange Moreau
Chapter 15: Towards a Post-Viking/Laval Manifesto for Social Europe
Ulrich Mückenberger THE TWO MANIFESTOS FOR SOCIAL EUROPE Brian Bercusson was one of the eight European scholars who were deeply involved in the elaboration of the two manifestos for Social Europe drawn up with the support of the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI – at that time directed by Reiner Hoffmann). They consisted of an approximately 15-page manifesto proper (published in nearly all European languages and signed by some hundred European labour scholars) and a manifesto book (in numerous languages) which gave political, economic and legal background analyses (Bercusson et al., 1996; Mückenberger, 2001). Manifesto 1 (with a view to the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) resulting in the Amsterdam Treaty) was meant to take a step against the EFTAisation of Europe and to strengthen a tendency which, in T.H. Marshall’s words (1950), was based on political, civil and social rights of European citizenship and tended towards a democratised Social Europe. It coincided with Tony Blair’s victory in the UK which made it possible to end the ‘two-speed European labour law’ by converting the social protocol into the social policy chapter and adding the employment chapter to primary law, in 1997. Manifesto 2 tried to move beyond the Amsterdam Treaty by concretising it, still on the basis of the citizenship approach, through instruments of industrial citizenship (European collective bargaining), gender equality and the quest for legally binding fundamental rights combined with legal tools for their implementation and enforcement. Common to both manifestos was the idea that Europe needed a properly functioning...