Elgar original reference
Edited by Robert W. Dimand, Mary Ann Dimand and Evelyn L. Forget
(b. 1903) Setsu Tanino (Setsuko Ochiai) was born in Chiba Prefecture in 1903, and graduated from the Department of Social Work at Japan Women’s University in 1926. She hoped that she would ﬁnd work in social welfare, but unexpectedly found a job in the Ministry of Home Affairs, the most powerful ministry in pre-World War II Japan. She became the ﬁrst woman probationary factory supervisor in 1928. At that time, night work and long hours of work in Japan were notorious around the world. Japan was always criticized at international conferences of the International Labour Organization (ILO) since its establishment in 1919, even though Japan participated in the creation of the ILO by sending two Japanese to the Committee of International Labour Legislation. For example, at the 1926 general assembly of the ILO, an Indian employers’ representative criticized Japan for increasing production by women’s night work on a two-shift basis and driving India’s products from the world market, because night work was prohibited in India. A British employees’ representative pointed out that unless Japan forbade women’s night work, China would remain reluctant to improve their conditions, which were worse than Japan’s. He demanded that Japan fully approve all the clauses of the Constitution of the ILO because he believed that Japan was in an important position regarding the international cooperation for improvement of working conditions promoted by the organization. Inside Japan, the necessity of a female factory supervisor was realized not only by male factory supervisors, but also by scholars...
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