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Edited by Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh
Chapter 21: Practical Considerations and Comparison of Instruments of Environmental Policy
~ ~ ~~ 2 1 Practical considerations and comparison of instruments of environmenta1 policy Clifford S. Russell and Philip T Powell 1. Introduction ‘Environmental policy’ is a phrase with a very wide range of possible meanings, potentially encompassing any policy that impinges directly, or even indirectly, on the natural world. For example, one does not need to stretch to file each of the following under this label: mining law; water law; policies on the acquisition and management of local, regional and national parks; highway design and construction rules; policies concerning the control of disease vectors such as mosquitoes and rodents; and urban and regional planning. Perhaps the most obviously environmental policies, however, are rules for the control of point and non-point sources of air, water and solid waste pollution and standards for ambient environmental quality at every geographic level from the local creek to the global shield of stratospheric ozone. Similarly, the range of possible environmental policy instruments is fully as wide as the range of concerns they might be used to address - from mining royalties for public lands, through irrigation water pricing, park access fees and permits, highway tolls and traffic rules - to the roughly ten policy instrument types commonly mentioned with respect to the management of pollution and resulting ambient environmental quality. (These are discussed and listed below. See, for example, US OTA, 1995.) To make this brief chapter manageable, some limits have to be imposed on what will be discussed. And the most straightforward limits are those separating...
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