The Emergence and Growth of Biotechnology

The Emergence and Growth of Biotechnology

Experiences in Industrialised and Developing Countries

New Horizons in the Economics of Innovation series

Rohini Acharya

This innovative book examines the development and evolution of biotechnology in industrialised and developing countries.

Chapter 5: The Impact of Biotechnology on International Trade

Rohini Acharya

Subjects: business and management, international business, economics and finance, economics of innovation, international economics, environment, biotechnology, innovation and technology, biotechnology, economics of innovation

Extract

Page 77 5—  The Impact of Biotechnology on International Trade 5.1—  Introduction As the two previous chapters have shown, biotechnologies, especially modern techniques, have been widely adopted by both industrialised and developing countries.  For industrialised countries biotechnology applications are strongest in the pharmaceutical and food processing sectors. For developing countries biotechnology has  addressed critical issues relating to food security and has increased value added for a number of traditional export products. Its knowledge­intensive nature has also  enabled developing countries to diversify production and has therefore enormous potential to increase both the quality and variety of products available to consumers.  Much of this has been achieved by building upon previously developed technological capabilities, such as during the green revolution when research and institutional  networks were set up in developing countries in order to increase collaboration and knowledge exchange between researchers. The institutional framework set up and  strengthened at that time has been invaluable for many developing countries in ushering in the new biotechnology revolution. However, as with any new technology, this one too has brought about several potentially radical changes in methods of production and of patterns of trade between  countries. While the first four chapters discussed the impact of biotechnology on methods of production and on rates of innovation, this chapter examines how  countries are using the new technologies to increase productivity and what the ultimate impact is on methods of production and traditional patterns of trade.    Page 78 5.2—  New Qualities for Old One of the primary aims...

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