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Promoting Competition in Global Markets

Promoting Competition in Global Markets

A Multi-National Approach

P. J. Lloyd and Kerrin M. Vautier

This book sheds new light on a major issue on the international trade policy agenda – the promotion and defence of competition in globalizing markets. The authors discuss multi-national approaches to competition policy in the WTO, European Union, the Americas, OECD, UNCTAD and CER. They investigate the policy responses to anti-competitive, cross-border business transactions and argue that a growing reliance on competition law is not in itself sufficient to promote competition in globalizing markets.

Chapter 7: ITO, the GATT 1960 Decision and the United Nations

P. J. Lloyd and Kerrin M. Vautier

Subjects: economics and finance, international economics


Page 125 7—  ITO, the GATT 1960 Decision and the United Nations Independently of the OECD, plurilateral attempts to deal with international competition problems have been developed in three international organizations: GATT, the  United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). ITO and the GATT 1960 Decision The GATT Decision has a curious history. The GATT came into existence because of the failure of the International Trade Organization to be ratified by some of the  participants in the negotiations in Havana in 1946 and 1947, chiefly the US. The GATT was based on the Chapter on Commercial Policy of the Havana Charter, and  throughout its life it only applied provisionally. The ITO Charter contained another chapter: Chapter V on Restrictive Business Practices. If it had been ratified, the  Charter would have regulated international trade and restrictive business practices under one agreement and administered the regulation through one organization,  which would have changed the evolution of laws relating to international trade and competition. Despite its non­ratification, these provisions of the ITO have influenced  the approach of the GATT (and other international organizations) to issues relating to international trade and competition. Chapter V contained nine articles setting out the obligations of member governments to address restrictive business practices. The purpose of these provisions was  defined as: to prevent, on the part of private or commercial public enterprises business practices affecting international trade which restrain competition, limit access to markets, or foster  monopolistic...

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