Edited by John Ishiyama, William J. Miller and Eszter Simon
Chapter 12: Internationalization of the curriculum (Bologna Process)
We, the Ministers responsible for higher education in the countries participating in the Bologna Process, met in Budapest and Vienna on March 11 and 12, 2010 to launch the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), as envisaged in the Bologna Declaration of 1999. (Budapest-Vienna Declaration 2010) The number of students in higher education has been rapidly increasing in the world. In 1995, there were some 80 million students worldwide. In 2003, Marijk C. van der Wende (2003, pp. 193–4) forecast that the number will reach over 150 million by 2025. However, the development has been even faster, as recently it has been estimated that by that time the number actually will be around 262 million (Maslen 2012). Most of the growth will take place in the developing world, especially in China and India, with new universities being established to satisfy the growing demand. Many world-leading universities are also setting up branch campuses in foreign countries, at the same time as new types of providers, such as virtual universities, have emerged. A further indicator of the internationalization process is an increasing growth of cross-border education. All this has changed the global landscape of higher education.
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