Economic Reform in Asia
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Economic Reform in Asia

China, India, and Japan

Sara Hsu

Economic Reform in Asia compares and analyzes the reform and development patterns of China, India, and Japan from both historical and developmental perspectives. Sara Hsu specifically focuses on China’s reform and opening-up in 1979, India’s accelerated liberalization in 1991, and the outset of the Meiji Restoration in Japan in 1878. This detailed overview of growth patterns in Asia’s largest economies is invaluable, especially in its determination to understand which development policies work, what role institutions play in development, and what issues may arise during said development.
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Chapter 9: The impact of development on the environment

Sara Hsu


In this chapter, we examine the impact of development on the environment. All three countries are in the process of, or have gone through a period of, rapid development which has had adverse impacts on the environment. The industrialization process in particular negatively affected ecosystems in China and Japan. Since India has not yet been through a full industrialization process, the nation has not experienced the severity of environmental problems stemming from human production processes; however, even so, India faces its own environmental challenges. We discuss those challenges in this chapter, starting with a general framework on environmental economic theory.

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