This chapter turns the attention to the European Union, and traces the evolution of its science and innovation policy back to the 1950s, when European integration began in earnest. It then follows the policy evolution, in its upswings and downturns, until the current period, and points to how policy developments have been tied to the European integration process more broadly. Europe today is at a crossroads, with either further integration or disintegration, and this will also profoundly affect the areas of science and innovation.
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