Chapter 1: The history of the distinction between international and non-international armed conflicts
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Chapter 1 examines the history of the distinction between international and non-international armed conflicts. It shows how states have insisted on the distinction between internal wars and international wars since the origins of international humanitarian law. It further argues that the law of Non-International Armed Conflict is based on states’ willingness to extend humanitarian protection to internal wars without hampering their right to quell rebellions and to treat rebels as criminals under their domestic law.

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