Chapter 3: Direct foreign military intervention in civil wars
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Chapter 3 examines different issues of conflict classification in cases where states intervene directly with their own forces in favour of one of the sides in a civil war. Among the various arguments, the chapter advances the following propositions: (i) direct foreign intervention in support of the territorial state against non-state groups will only be deemed a Non-International Armed Conflict if the hostilities between the non-state group and the foreign state meet the threshold of Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions; (ii) direct foreign military intervention, either in favour of or against the territorial state, does not ipso facto internationalise the ongoing armed conflict between a territorial state and a non-state group.

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