Chapter 4: Indirect foreign interventions in civil wars
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Chapter 4 analyses various aspects of conflict classification in cases of indirect foreign intervention, such as the supply of training and funds to one of the sides in a civil war. In particular, it advances the following arguments: (i) indirect intervention can lead to an armed conflict only when the intervening state has become involved to the extent that it is using force directly through its own forces or forces acting on its behalf; (ii) indirect interventions can only lead to internationalisation of ongoing civil wars when a non-state group is no longer deemed to be independent but acting on behalf of another state or when the foreign state is involved in an International Armed Conflict against the territorial state and the non-state group satisfies the requirements of Article 4A(2) of Geneva Convention (III) (including the requirement of non-allegiance).

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