The role of the Council of Europe led it to address the challenge of managing cultural diversity in Europe in the wake of the Yugoslav collapse and ‘9/11’. From a small unit on Intercultural Dialogue and Conflict Prevention in 2002, this work developed as shocks multiplied and member states asked in 2005 for a ‘white paper’ on intercultural dialogue. The product of a widescale consultation, the white paper, launched in 2008, enunciated the new intercultural paradigm. This was founded on democracy, human rights and the rule of law and built an architecture defined by egalitarian individualism, reciprocal recognition and impartial treatment. A wide range of consequent policies and practices were set out. Although some member states subsequently retreated into assimilationism and there was a multiculturalist rearguard action in the academy, the new paradigm has survived and developed.
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