Chapter 11: Conclusions: beyond an unending ‘crisis’
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Europe can only meet the challenges it faces by collaboration, not intergovernmental competition. In the face of the populist attack, there has been a rebound in pro-EU sentiment in Europe. Survey data show much greater support for more Europe than for less. They also show strong support for a ‘social Europe’—to which the European Commission responded in 2017 with a ‘pillar of social rights’, however lacking teeth. A macro-economically sound alternative to austerity is required, which in turn demands a political union. In a return to the federalist vision of the idealists who emerged from the resistance, Europe needs to be ‘refounded’ as a republic, with the intergovernmental EU structures replaced by a House of Representatives, a Senate of regions and a president. Prepared by a Europe-wide, elected constitutional assembly, this would be a Europe of equal citizens which could offer a realistic utopia for these dark times.

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