Chapter 12: Foreign direct investment in high-risk environments: An historical perspective
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Since the banking crisis of 2008 the global economy is perceived as riskier than before. Flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) have contracted, and firms that cannot manage risks have withdrawn from countries in which they previously invested. These problems are not new. For centuries, firms have invested in risky foreign environments. This chapter reviews the risk management strategies of foreign investors, using archival evidence and secondary sources. It distinguishes the different types of risks that investors face and the different strategies by which risks can be managed.

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