This chapter looks at the empirical reality of employment for women vis-à-vis men to identify the patterning of gender and other forms of inequality in relation to labour market engagement and working conditions. Again the key questions are: What is the status quo? What are the signature trends? Is the situation improving in regard to gender equality? The chapter is organized into three main sections. The first considers employment rates. The second section examines a range of sources of labour market-related inequality, especially in regard to structural matters (for example, duration of paid work, sectoral location, pay levels). The third section overviews the factors that have been identified by existing research as explanations for gender inequality in relation to employment rates and pay inequality.
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