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Agents, Assumptions and Motivations Behind REDD+

Creating an International Forest Regime

Simone Lovera-Bilderbeek

​It was hoped that by paying forest dependent peoples and countries for their “service” of conserving their forests, REDD+ would lead to a reduction in deforestation greenhouse gases. The complexities have, however, left some ambiguities. It was never agreed who would pay for the program, and it has been criticized as ignoring the root causes of forest loss. Considering the motivations of those who promoted REDD+ this book proposes remedies to its shortfalls and recommends more efficient, equitable and effective conservation policies.
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Appendix 4: Overview of international forest-related agreements

Simone Lovera-Bilderbeek

Table A4.1    Overview of international forest-related agreements

Agreement

Year of adoption

Legal status

Geographical scope

Thematic focus

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

1968

Legally binding

Africa

Forest conservation

Convention on Wetlands

1971

Legally binding

Global

Tree-dominated wetlands

Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

1972

Legally binding

Global

Forests in World Heritage Sites

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

1973

Legally binding

Global

Forest species endangered by timber trade

Amazon Cooperation Treaty

1978

Legally binding

Amazon region

Sustainable development

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats

1979

Legally binding

Europe

Forest conservation

ITTA and its successor agreements

1983

Legally binding

Global, focus on tropical forests

Timber trade and related forest conservation

ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

1985

Legally binding

Southeast Asia

Forest conservation

Tropical Forestry Action Plan

1985

Non-legally binding

Tropical forests

Forestry

ILO Convention no. 169 Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries

1989

Legally binding

Global

Forests on Indigenous Peoples’ territories

Chapter 11 of Agenda 21

1992

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

The Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests

1992

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

Convention on Biological Diversity

1992

Legally binding

Global

Forest conservation, restoration, benefit sharing

UNFCCC

1992

Legally binding

Global

Forest-related emissions

 

– Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC

1997

Legally binding

Global

Forest-related emissions, especially in industrialized countries

 

– REDD+ regime

2014

Non-legally binding (voluntary)

Developing countries

Forest-related emissions in developing countries

Central American Forest Convention

1993

Legally binding

Central America

Forest conservation

Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa

1994

Legally binding

Global

Tree-dominated drylands

Proposals for Action of the IPF

1997

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

 

– Proposals for Action of the IFF

1999

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

 

– Resolutions and decisions of the United Nations Forum on Forests

2000–2016

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

 

– Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests

2007

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development

2002

Non-legally binding

Global

Forests general

SADC Forest Protocol

2002

Legally binding

Southern Africa

Forest conservation and development

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

2007

Non-legally binding

Global

Rights regarding forests on Indigenous territories

Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030

2015

Non-legally binding

Global

Halting deforestation, reforestation, sustainable development

Source: United Nations Treaties Collection, https://treaties.un.org (last visited January 19, 2017); General Assembly Resolutions, http://www.un.org/en/sections/documents/general-assembly-resolutions/index.html (last visited January 19, 2017).