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In its conclusion the book identifies the main areas of investigation and highlights important conclusions. It summarises its key findings and the use of its “toolbox of translators”. It also projects the likelihood of trade mark and other intellectual property disputes in investment arbitration in the future, based on the developments in practice and equally evaluates the risks of this area of investment arbitration being treated as any other – without the necessary adjustments in the adjudication process. It is more likely than not that tobacco cases, such as Philip Morris v Australia and Philip Morris v Uruguay are not the end of trade mark investment cases. As demonstrated by the Bridgestone v Panama and Eli Lilly v Canada arbitrations, investors are now more aware that intellectual property assets are protected under international investment treaties.

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