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The Mediterranean is an area characterized by strong institutional, economic and social differences. In recent decades there has been a process of economic convergence, which has also been reflected in the trend of per capita energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as shown by our estimates of the Gini index. Despite the convergence process, there remain great differences in income, energy consumption and CO2 emissions levels. Although the European Union is seeking to intensify relations with North Africa and the countries of the Middle East in the energy sector, concrete implementation of energy policies faces many obstacles. Since the Mediterranean is one of the regions most exposed to the problem of climate change, the increase in the share of renewables is above all a question of greater environmental sustainability of energy consumption, but it is also an important aspect of the security of energy supplies.

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