Chapter 5: New rituals and the dynamics of cultural tourism practices
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A practice approach allows us to focus on the factors that drive participation, maintenance and value creation. The changes in the cultural tourism practice outlined in the previous chapters throw light on the decline of the more traditional, Culture 1.0 and 2.0 approaches and their replacement by service-driven or consumer-driven logic or co-creation. The crumbling meaning-making systems of traditional cultural tourism have seen the guidebook replaced by the information cascade of big data as the main support for cultural tourism practices. New intermediaries and platforms make use of data analytics to sift and curate cultural tourism experiences, and cultural spaces increasingly resort to the use of new technologies to engage new audiences. The need to give meaning to cultural spaces for new, networked publics, has also placed a new emphasis on ‘placemaking’ instead of cultural destination development. Cultural institutions and cities increasingly work together to innovate cultural experiences and to create meaning for residents as well as tourists. Placemaking has overtaken the previous emphasis on city marketing and branding, to emphasize the need for improving the reality of places, not just their image. As cultural and creative tourists increasingly seek to ‘live like locals’, strategies aimed purely at the ‘cultural tourist’ are also likely to become less effective. The range of outcomes desired from the cultural tourism practice will therefore also increase, moving from economic and cultural impacts, to social, environmental and identity effects. We also consider the dynamics of cultural tourism practices and how these are created, maintained and interrupted or terminated. Particular attention is paid to the role of mobile actors in propagating new cultural tourism formats around the globe, and the Covid-19 pandemic as an extreme interruption of the cultural tourism practice.

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