Career Choice in Management and Entrepreneurship
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Career Choice in Management and Entrepreneurship

A Research Companion

Edited by Mustafa F. Özbilgin and Ayala Malach-Pines

Although a large and steadily growing research literature attests to an interest in management and entrepreneurship, little research has focused on comparative assessment of the career choices and trajectories of managers and entrepreneurs. This timely book fills the gap by presenting an assessment of early influences on the career choice of managers and entrepreneurs, their attitudes at the start of their careers as students, and in their later employment experiences.
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Chapter 2: Culture and Gender in the Career Choice of Aspiring Managers and Entrepreneurs

Ayala Malach-Pines and Oshrit Kaspi-Baruch


Ayala Malach-Pines and Oshrit Kaspi-Baruch The choice of a career is a complex and multifaceted process that includes all the spheres of a person’s life (Hall, 1996). Since the early 1900s, many attempts have been made to classify the factors that influence this process. Most of these efforts focused on such factors as aptitudes, interests, resources, limitations, requirements and opportunities (e.g. Parsons, 1909; Ginzberg, 1951; Super, 1953, 1957; Swanson, 1996). As a result, both traditional and modern vocational choice theories have been the focus of similar criticism: they do not address the myriad cultural contexts that influence people’s career choice and shape its development (Fouad and ByarsWinston, 2005). While the importance of cultural variables is increasingly accepted and valued (Swanson and Gore, 2000), most modern vocational choice theories do not include the influence of such contextual factors as educational and socioeconomic background, and the environment in which the individual grows up (Tang, 2003). And cultural context was shown to make a difference in the way people make decisions and choose their work (Fouad and Byars-Winston, 2005). The meaning of work, the value placed on it, and the expectations about who should perform what type of work reflect the society in which work is organized (Carter and Cook, 1992). Work holds different meanings for different people as a function of their sociocultural experiences (Cheatham, 1990). Growing globalization of the workforce increases the need of career counselors to understand the cultural context of their...

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