A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 5: Effects of a Kilometre Charge on Car Use, Car Ownership and Relocation
5. Eﬀects of a kilometre charge on car use, car ownership and relocation Barry Ubbels, Taede Tillema, Erik Verhoef and Bert van Wee 5.1 INTRODUCTION People’s responses to transport pricing may be multifold. Price increases need not exclusively lead to trip suppression, they may also induce travellers to change their modal use, change their departure time, or even decide to move or change job, depending on the type of measure. Pricing may thus aﬀect many behavioural dimensions, most of which have been studied, both theoretically and empirically. Empirical studies often focus on conventional pricing measures, such as fuel taxes and parking pricing, and the practical experiences of road tolls. This is relevant in many situations, and provides useful insights into the potential eﬀects road pricing may have. For instance, Goodwin (1992) reports that the price elasticity of gasoline demand is Ϫ0.27 in the short run and Ϫ0.71 in the long run. The case of Singapore has shown that time-dependent charges will aﬀect time of driving (Olszewski and Xie, 2005). In addition, relocation eﬀects may be expected (for example, Banister, 2002; Eliasson and Mattsson, 2002; and Vickerman, 2005). However, currently in several countries the attention is shifting toward charges on a kilometre basis, the UK and the Netherlands being examples. Research into the possible short- and long-term eﬀects of a kilometre charge in its diﬀerent possible forms is rather poor. In this chapter we try to reduce this gap by presenting the results of...
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