A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 12: Sensitivity of Geographical Accessibility Measures Under Road-Pricing Conditions
Taede Tillema, Tom de Jong, Bert van Wee and Dirk van Amelsfort 12.1 INTRODUCTION Accessibility indicators or measures give the opportunity to gain a quick and an interpretable insight into (accessibility) eﬀects due to changes in the land use or transport system (for example, caused by certain policy interventions). These advantages might also make accessibility indicators a useful policy tool to assess (transport-geographical) eﬀects due to transport pricing. There are several categories/types of accessibility measures with which accessibility can be computed (Handy and Niemeier, 1997; Bruinsma and Rietveld, 1998; Geurs and Ritsema van Eck, 2001; Tillema et al., 2003; Geurs and van Wee, 2004). These geographical accessibility measures have in common that they generally consist of an opportunity component, on the one hand, and an impedance component, on the other. The location component indicates which, or which type of, activity location(s) is (are) central within the analysis. Examples of activity locations are jobs, shops, services, other people, amusement parks and so on. The second component, the impedance, indicates the diﬃculty of reaching a destination from a certain origin location. This impedance can be expressed by various factors, the most important of which are distance, time and costs. The geographical accessibility eﬀects of road-pricing may be evaluated in diﬀerent ways, depending on the goal of the study and the argument of the impedance function. If a distance-based accessibility measure is used to evaluate road-pricing eﬀects, accessibility is not likely to change unless, perhaps (in...
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