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Creative Cities, Cultural Clusters and Local Economic Development

Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti

This book analyses the economic development of cities from the ‘cultural economy’ and ‘creative industry’ perspectives, examining and differentiating them as two related but distinct segments of contemporary city economies. The authors argue that although they are normally conflated, the first is largely subsidized while the second is highly entrepreneurial hence they actually make very different kinds of contribution to a city’s character, attractiveness and competitiveness.
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Chapter 12: The Creative City: A Matter of Values

Richard Smith and Katie Warfield


1 Richard Smith and Katie Warfield The men of experiment are like the ant; they only collect and use. But the bee . . . gathers its materials from the flowers of the garden and of the field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. (Leonardo da Vinci) Creativity is a positively sanctioned type of deviance. (Jurgen Friedrichs) INTRODUCTION Generations of theorists have debated the definition of creativity. Originally the act of creation, and thus the product of creativity, was relegated to the capacities only of deities. Early artists and poets did not ‘create’, rather artistic practitioners ‘arranged’ objects and notions from things and ideas that already existed in the world – thanks to the exclusive ‘creative capacities’ of the god(s). To ‘make anew’ was a divine capacity. We live in a different time, however, and creativity now denotes not so much the production of new worldly objects, but simply an innovative action. Creativity describes both process and product, and as such virtually anyone (or, for that matter, any ‘thing’) can now be ‘creative’. Not only can the artist, the poet, the architect be ‘creative’ – innovate, imagine, ingenerate or invent – but so too can inanimate objects: creative places, creative economies, creative politics and creative governance. The foundational qualities of ‘creativity’ have not evolved over time, but, as mentioned, the creative subjects, and thus the purposes to which creativity is put to task, have changed. Therefore, exploring the notion of ‘creativity’, as we are here in this...

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