Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research
Edited by David Smallbone, Hans Landström and Dylan Jones-Evans
Chapter 11: Cooperation with Universities and Research Institutions for Corporate Entrepreneurship Activities: The Influence of the Technology Intensity of the Environment
11. Cooperation with universities and research institutions for corporate entrepreneurship activities: the influence of the technological intensity of the environment Ángela González-Moreno and Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship research has primarily been concerned with the startup of new firms, being traditionally viewed as an individual-level activity related to the creation of new organizations. However, entrepreneurship has recently become accepted as a firm-level phenomenon (Teng, 2007), which is of relevance to managers regardless of the size and age of their organization. The notion of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) extends the idea of being bold, proactive and aggressive to established firms and can be defined as ‘the sum of a company’s innovation, renewal and venturing efforts’ (Zahra, 1995, p. 227). CE is therefore defined as entrepreneurship activities within an existing organization. Innovation is the most common and important aspect of CE (Covin and Miles, 1999). Innovation activities have often emphasized research and development (R&D) work leading to technological novelties, with academics traditionally paying attention to high-technology sectors, while largely neglecting or underestimating innovations in low- and mediumtechnology industries. CE activities have a high degree of risk, and firms try to improve the odds of innovation through various approaches, with one example being the formation of R&D alliances to carry out joint research (Hagedoorn, 1993). In R&D alliances, firms can share costs and risks, as well as achieve economies of scale in research (Deeds and Hill, 1996). There is growing interest in cooperative arrangements for innovation in the...
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