New Directions in Social Impact Assessment
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New Directions in Social Impact Assessment

Conceptual and Methodological Advances

Edited by Frank Vanclay and Ana Maria Esteves

This important new book outlines current developments in thinking in the field of Social Impact Assessment (SIA). It advances the theory and practice of SIA, and argues that a dramatic shift is required in the way socioeconomic studies and community participation is undertaken. The book emphasizes that, much more than the act of predicting impacts in a regulatory context, SIA needs to be the process of managing the social aspects of development and that there needs to be a holistic and integrated approach to impact assessment. It stresses that greater attention needs to be given to ensuring that the goals of development are attained and enhanced.
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Chapter 11: Development-induced Community Resettlement 1

Thayer Scudder


87 Displacement and Resettlement ( has been established. Research institutions addressing development-induced resettlement include China’s National Research Centre for Resettlement at Hohai University and University of Oxford’s Refugee Study Centre. The World Bank and the Asian Development Bank house a large number of resettlement specialists. A series of reports from the World Bank are of particular importance (World Bank, 1980, 1993, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2004). Policy-relevant theoretical frameworks of the resettlement process A substantial body of policy-relevant theory exists on the global experience with development-induced and, more specifically, dam-induced involuntary community resettlement. I have combined two major theoretical frameworks into a single theory that also incorporates other important contributions (Scudder, 2005). Dating back to the late 1970s, the first is my four-stage framework which focuses on how a majority of resettlers can be expected to behave over two generations during a successful resettlement process that enables them to improve their livelihood and become project beneficiaries (Scudder, 1981, 1985, 1993, 1997a, 1997b, 2005; Scudder and Colson, 1982). The second framework, developed during the 1990s, is Cernea’s ‘impoverishment risks and reconstruction model’ (Cernea, 1996, 1997, 1999; Cernea and McDowell, 2000). The four-stage framework The four-stage framework involves: • • • • stage 1: planning for resettlement prior to physical removal; stage 2: coping with the initial drop in living standards that tends to follow removal; stage 3: initiation of economic development and community formation activities that are necessary to improve living standards of firstgeneration resettlers; stage 4: handing over a sustainable resettlement process to the second...

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