Chapter 5: From test tube babies to human clones: salient issues in the international law of biomedicine
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Socio-political, ethical and legal debates have always surrounded biomedicine. Reproductive medicine and, particularly, in vitro fertilisation, remain fields of legal and ethical controversy. Other contested areas are the use of human embryos for scientific research or therapeutic purposes, somatic gene therapy, and interventions in the germ line. Categoric bans on germline therapy come under pressure as control of undesirable collateral effects increases. Particular concern has arisen from the possibility of human cloning. In this regard, many jurisdictions distinguish between “reproductive” cloning leading to the creation of an identical human being, on the one hand, and “therapeutic” cloning on the other hand. These areas provide ample material for the delicate interplay between domestic and international law. The Coronavirus pandemic has posed a challenge for the international community and triggered unprecedented cooperation and new approaches to vaccine regulation.

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