Chapter 6: EU-Russia energy relations: the case of gas trade
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This chapter zooms into EU-Russia gas trade, how it originated and how it became an essential aspect of EU-Russia relations. Developments under analysis include the Russia-Ukraine gas crises of 2006-2009, the economic and political considerations surrounding pipeline projects such as Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream, and the impact of the conflict in Ukraine on EU-Russia gas trade between 2014 and 2021. The chapter also examines how the European Commission used its regulatory power in an antitrust investigation concerning Russia’s main gas exporter, Gazprom.

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