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This chapter presents a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between law and technology in the healthcare sector. The framework centers on a 2x2 typology: The first dimension considers whether a new technology is consistent with or disruptive of the healthcare sector’s prior institutional commitments. The second dimension considers whether a new technology is designed for clinical or administrative use. Together, these intersecting axes shed new light on when and how healthcare innovations languish or diffuse, enhance or disrupt. We illustrate these dynamics by examining the role of law in supporting, limiting, or challenging several recent technological developments in the US healthcare system, such as electronic health records (an administrative technology that supports prior institutional practices) and genomic research (a clinical technology that challenges prior institutional practices).

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