Chapter 11: From ocean dumping to marine geoengineering: The evolution of the London Regime
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This chapter explores the evolution of the dumping regime over its 50-year history. Its central theme is the expansion of the regime’s mandate to address issues not traditionally considered ‘dumping’ as exemplified by the amendments to the 1996 London Protocol addressing sub-seabed CO2 sequestration and marine geoengineering. The chapter highlights the relative success of the dumping regime in the context of marine pollution and its transformation from providing a licence to pollute in the 1970s to imposing an obligation to protect in the 1990s and beyond. The chapter also explores selected challenges to the regime, in particular, issues around compliance and the failure to develop a liability regime as well as limitations to its scope and potential expansion thereof arising from lack of support for recent amendments to the Protocol.

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