This chapter discusses legal aspects of the protection of the marine environment of the Area, specifically its protection from the potential adverse effects caused by the recovery of mineral deposits from the seabed. The chapter examines the environmental regulation of activities in the Area and the responsibilities and obligations of contractors, sponsoring States, and the ISA in relation to those activities. Noting the flexibility given to the ISA by the LOSC to adopt measures aimed at the protection of the marine environment the chapter also reviews environmental management at the regional and global scale. Finally, the chapter identifies some of the key unanswered questions that will need to be addressed as deep-sea mining becomes a reality.
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