This chapter will address specifically the argument that we are seeing a new wave of radicalism and change within the labor movement and new groups of workers in Southern Europe. There is a set of interventions that have emerged prior to 2008 with regards to the precarious worker debate: these have argued that traditional forms of worker representation are not fit for purpose and that they are unable to represent, in any meaningful way, the nature of worker interests and realities in society. In addition, the process of de-regulation and the development of the gig economy has further challenged this trade union role. Nevertheless, the chapter will review these debates drawing from the Spanish case, but also various other Southern European contexts, and outline the new phenomena of there being more independent and minority union action.
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