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Organizational improvisation typically undergoes substantial change. Many organizational agents may not be prepared for such a change and face a setting marked by limited structure and high ambiguity. This context is characterized by a level of variability that requires several conditions for processes to function effectively. This is the focus of this chapter, the process of organizational improvisation. A first key element is to make sense of a situation that is ambiguous and where uncertainty prevails. Leaders can play a crucial role when plans are no longer fully applicable. Given the convergence of action and conception inherent in improvisation, it is not possible to know in advance what specifically is to be done, otherwise it would not be improvisation. However, it is possible to anticipate some important conditions for successful improvisational behavior. These include encouragement of attention to real-time information, ongoing communication and reflection during action.

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