The outcomes of improvisation can be either beneficial or detrimental, with
their value being strongly related to contingency factors or to factors
inherent in the organizational agent itself. These factors moderate the
relationship between organizational improvisation and its outcomes. This
chapter discusses the consequences of organizational improvisation. When
implemented effectively, improvisation can have positive results because it
is well suited to deal with contexts of unpredictability. When mismanaged,
it can lead to negative outcomes. Improvisation has short-term impacts,
given its immediate nature, but it can also have long-term consequences,
whose effects are felt over time. Short-term outcomes refer to the immediate
concrete results of the improvisation action relative to the initial trigger
of the activity, and the short-term impact such as project success.
Long-term outcomes consist of lasting organizational impacts that may also
be performance-related but may also include long-term learning and
continuous adaptation to new contexts.
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