This chapter examines the implications for practice-oriented exploration and
research on organizational improvisation. It first presents the case for
active explorations by managers, thought leaders, and academics to develop
training tools, tools for specific contexts, and to probe how to improve
improvisation in large organizations. Then provides an applied guide for
practitioners to prepare for improvisational action. It discusses how
organizations can use improvisation skills as a source of competitive
advantage in rapidly changing environments. Different phases are important
to effectively improvise. Before improvisation it is essential to plan for
its likely occurrence (not for the specific actions done during the
improvisation), prepare key improvisation agents, and provide them with the
adequate tools. During improvisation it is important to know what to do and
when to do it. After the improvisation it becomes vital to learn from that
experience so that processes improve, and improvisation skills are
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