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The built environment is created in a given time and place but the population that lives and works within it changes over time. Many of these changes are gradual, others are short-term shocks with long-term consequences. The aim of this chapter is to explore the built environment implications of three long-term demographic shifts in the Global North: the growing role of immigration into developed countries, the aging of the baby boomer generation and the millennial generation’s transition into adulthood. It also discusses the potential long-term impacts that Covid-19 could have on cities, even once the virus is under control. Understanding these trends and their impacts on the built environment can arm policymakers with tools to realize a better future for our cities and the ever-changing societies within them.

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