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This chapter explores the multiple and varied pathways between transport and health with a focus on the short- and long-term negative impacts of cars and auto-centric design and the many benefits possible based on a shift back to active transport. We explore the evidence related to pollution, noise, and traffic danger before presenting the physical and mental health benefits of built and social environments that promote and encourage walking and cycling. These benefits are in the form of direct and indirect pathways that holistically impact people’s physical activity and social interactions. These benefits typically outweigh exposure to environmental harms. We end with a look at the promise and peril of new mobility technology from a health and equity lens.

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