Chapter 3: Adaptation, loss and damage and climate justice
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The latest climate science and inadequate progress under international climate change negotiations make it clear that climate change is destroying, and will continue to destroy, Capabilities especially, but not exclusively, in developing countries. This is consistent with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2012 Special Report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation and its 2021 Sixth Assessment Report Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Climate-related disasters can result from climate extremes, or even a series of non-extreme events, which occur in combination with social vulnerabilities and exposure to risks. When thresholds or tipping points are exceeded, this poses severe challenges for adaptation leading to extensive loss and damage. In conceiving of a climate justice approach to adaptation and loss and damage, a Capability Approach is proposed. This is followed by a procedural justice approach based on Amartya Sen's book The Idea of Justice. Central to this approach is the need to counter the concerted attempts of climate sceptics and certain sections of the media to undermine impartial and rational political responses to climate change and its inherent threats to Capabilities.

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